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Salvia mexicana 'Queretaro'


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Salvia mexicana 'Queretaro'




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Description

(Querétaro Mexican Sage) Pump it up! Salvia mexicana 'Querétaro' is like Limelight Mexican Sage on steroids -- much larger all over and more vigorous. Honeybees and hummingbirds love its deep violet-blue flowers.

We love this Mexican Sage's flowers, too, as well as its glossy, supersized, almost deltoid leaves and chartreuse calyxes. Altogether, it adds electricity to Salvia gardens late in the growing season when hummingbirds need its nectar for their southward migration.

Salvia mexicana is native to the state of Querétaro in central Mexico. Although the history of its collection is unknown, this sage's scientific name was first published by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. Robert Ornduff of the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley collected the Limelight variety in Querétaro in the late 1970s.

This is a subshrub, which means that it combines the soft herbaceous growth of a perennial with the woody base of a shrub. It grows well in full sun to partial shade, spreading wide and reaching heights that tower over the average adult's head.

Although a water lover, this particular variety of Mexican Sage grows well with average supplemental watering based on local rainfall and heat.

Details

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Common name  
Queretaro Mexican Sage
USDA Zones  
8 - 11
Size (h/w/fh)  
108"+/60"+/120"+
Exposure  
Full sun to partial shade
Soil type  
Well drained & rich
Water needs  
Average
Pot size  
3 1/2 inch deep pot
Container plant?  
Yes
Our price
10.50

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Here are some guidelines for success with this plant in your garden.
Click on an individual icon for more detailed information.

Exposure

Full sun
Full sun
Partial shade
Partial shade

Growing Habit

8 - 11
8 - 11
108 inches tall+
108 inches tall+
60 inches wide+
60 inches wide+
Perennial
Perennial
Shrub
Shrub

Water Needs

Average water
Average water
Water loving
Water loving

Blooming Season

Fall blooming
Fall blooming
Summer blooming
Summer blooming

Wildlife

Honeybees
Honeybees
Deer resistant
Deer resistant
Hummingbirds
Hummingbirds

Colors

Salvias and their companion plants pop with color. Sweep your eyes from top to the bottom here for an impression of this plant's color combinations. The first row displays blossoms from primary to less dominant shades and includes any contrasting throat color. The second tier is the main hue of leaf-like bracts or calyxes supporting the flowers. Foliage (one or two colors) leafs out in the bottom row.
Primary color - Strong Violet
RHS# 90A






Throat color - Brilliant Violet - RHS# 90D




Secondary color - Brilliant Violet
RHS# 90D



Bract color - Strong Yellowish Green
RHS# 144C

Leaf color - Moderate Olive Green
RHS# 137A



Learn more about how we analyze plant colors
Ready for some pruning?

Deciduous, woody stem Salvias

These are species that produce woody stems, but die back to the ground in the winter in all but the warmest climates. In warm winter areas these can become woody shrubs, but they generally benefit from the following pruning methods.

Pruning is both an art and a science. It takes practice, experience and learning from your mistakes to become a proficient pruner. The pruning information about this plant should be considered as a guideline for getting started. Your particular climate, soils, watering and fertility schedules, sun exposure, space requirements and weather are all factors that influence how and when you choose to prune. We’re providing a starting place for you, and over time you will learn the particularities of this plant in your garden. Don’t be afraid to get started – Salvias, in general, are quick to rebound if inappropriately pruned.

Deadheading – the removal of spent flowers, is a practice that will always benefit the plant’s health and appearance. This can be done at any time. Pruning involves removal of entire stems of spent growth. Becoming "spent" means that flowering stems stop blooming and begin going to seed.

Growing Season Pruning

During the spring and summer, you can completely or partially remove any stems that have finished blooming and are becoming unsightly. This often stimulates fresh new growth and increased flowering


Dormant Season Pruning

At the end of the growing season or after first frost, spent stems can be cut to the ground. Some gardeners in cold winter climates say that leaving 3 to 6 inches of the stems intact during the winter improves survivability. They remove the remaining stems before new growth begins in the spring. In warmer areas the stems may never completely die back, but should be cut to ground to allow for new growth.


Check the Views from the Garden section of our Everything Salvias Blog for videos that apply to this plant.

  • Salvia madrensis 'Red Neck Girl'

    (Red Stem Forsythia Sage) The thick, square, red stems of this variety of Forsythia Sage make it conspicuously different from the species and from everything else in your garden. Its jointed stalks look a little like rhubarb gone mad!

    This statuesque perennial grows up to 10 feet tall, but spreads only 3 feet wide. It is a late bloomer from Mexico's Sierra Madre Oriental mountains where it grows at altitudes of 4,000 to 5,000 feet and tolerates temperatures down to 20 degrees F.

    Short periods of colder temperatures don't kill Red Stem Forsythia Sage. It's part of a tough species. When knocked out by frigid weather, it usually comes back from root stock. A single plant forms a multi-stemmed thicket through slowly spreading rootstock, but can easily be kept tidy by removing unwanted stems.

    Give this sage morning sun and afternoon shade as well as ample water. From fall until frost -- or into spring in mild winter areas -- it will reward you with buttery yellow flowers that make this shrub look like a Forsythia from a distance. But get up close and you will notice that it has roughly textured, heart shaped leaves as well as thick, square stems.

    You can grow Red Stem Forsythia Sage as a screen, border or background plant. It even does well in containers. We love to plant Bog Sage, Salvia uliginosa at its base for a bright blue floral contrast.

    11.50
  • Salvia madrensis 'Silver Leaf'

    (Silver Leaf Forysthia Sage) It's the foliage of this clone that makes it so different from its parent plant. The leaves are a lovely silver and smaller than the green leaves of the species. However, they both have buttery yellow, Forsythia-like blossoms.

    This statuesque perennial grows up to 10 feet tall, but spreads only 3 feet wide. It is a late bloomer from Mexico's Sierra Madre Oriental mountains where it grows at altitudes of 4,000 to 5,000 feet and tolerates temperatures down to 20 degrees F.

    Short periods of colder temperatures don't kill this tough sage. When knocked out by frigid weather, it usually comes back from root stock. A single plant forms a multi-stemmed thicket through slowly spreading rootstock, but can easily be kept tidy by removing unwanted stems.

    Give this sage morning sun and afternoon shade as well as ample water. It blooms from fall until frost or into spring in mild winter areas. You can grow Silver Leaf Forsythia Sage as a screen, border or background plant. It even does well in containers. We love to plant Bog Sage, Salvia uliginosa at its base for a bright blue floral contrast.

    10.50
  • Salvia mexicana 'Blue Señorita'

    ('Blue Señorita' Mexican Sage) Smallish rich cobalt blue flowers come in large clusters on this unusually strong growing shrub.  From late summer through fall you and the hummingbirds will be delighted with this rare variety.

    Grow in dappled shade in warm climates, full sun in cooler areas.  7 feet tall or more when well grown, with flowers too numerous to count.  The leaves of this variety are generally smaller than other S. mexicana types. giving it a softer look in the garden.

    From Australia, where it is widely grown.  Rare in the US, but not for long as this is a special plant.

    10.50
  • Salvia mexicana 'Huntington Garden Form'

    (Huntington Garden Mexican Sage) In areas with mild end-of-year weather, this sage is a welcoming tower of nectar for hummingbirds. Large blue-to-purple flowers shaped like open parrot beaks reach out from dark calyxes. Their spikes stretch out horizontally and gently curve upward from the plant's mid-green foliage.

    This is a late blooming subshrub, which means that it combines soft herbaceous foliage with some woody growth. Similar to a number of Salvias native to Mexico, this one generally begins flowering around harvest time. Its lush leaves are veined and heart-shaped.

    As with so most types of Salvia mexicana, this variety does well in full sun, but may need afternoon shade -- especially in inland gardens. Give it well-drained, rich soil and average watering depending on local moisture.

    Huntington Garden Mexican Sage is a fine choice for woodland, winter wildlife and naturalistic gardens. Its relaxed form creates a pretty backdrop for other, shorter Salvias.

    Similar to most Salvias, this plant is not a favorite munchy for deer.

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia mexicana 'Limelight'

    (Limelight Mexican Sage) The chartreuse green calyxes and deep violet flowers of this sage form an electric combination that lights up the partial shade garden from late summer through fall. The light gray-green leaves are a handsome finishing touch.

    The unusual foliage, mesmerizingly blue flowers and relatively large size of this sage makes it one of our most popular plants. Originally from Mexico's Queretaro Province, this cultivar was introduced to U.S. horticulture by Robert Ornduff of University of California at Berkeley in the late 1970s.

    10.50
  • Salvia mexicana 'Puerto de la Zorra'

    (Door of the Fox Mexican Sage) Purplish foliage contrasts attractively with the violet-to-purple flowers of this big sage, which grows 6 feet tall and 4 feet wide. Bloom time is autumn. This darkly dramatic Mexican Sage makes a particularly attractive entryway accent.

    Zorra is Spanish for female fox as well as slang for prostitute. At one time, we heard that Puerto de la Zorra (door of the fox) was collected in front of a brothel. How wrong we were. Upon learning that North Carolina Salvia specialist Rich Dufresne found this Mexican Sage in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, we asked him about its naming and location. He collected it along what is still an isolated stretch of the old Pan American Highway (Mexican Federal Highway 85). The only marker nearby was a wooden sign that said "Zorra." Dufresne concludes that there may be lots of fox dens in this rural area.

    Other good uses for this Salvia mexicana include hedges and perennial borders. It looks pretty among mixed plantings in a hummingbird garden. Growing it in a container is fine, but will limit height.

    Give this unique, heat-tolerant perennial full sun to partial shade along with regular watering. One more tip: It doesn't seem to mind occupying damp spots in the yard.

    Highly recommended!

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia mexicana 'Russell's Form'

    Expect rapid, tall growth from this Salvia Mexicana . In the ground, Russell’s Mexican Sage can reach up to 10 feet tall and 5 feet wide, providing an effective screen of dark green, heart-shaped foliage. By late autumn it’s bursting with flowers.

    Floriferous panicles of clear blue blossoms with green calyxes are a major attraction of this heat-tolerant sage. It does well in full sun to partial shade in USDA Zones 8 to 11. In cooler parts of its winter range, it may be best to grow this lush beauty in a large container beneficially positioned for protection from wind and cold. It freezes to ground when temperatures drop to 20 degrees F or a little bit higher and then returns the following spring. However, it generally grows to a shorter height in containers.

    Similar to Salvia involucrata and Salvia madrensis , Russell’s Mexican Sage is one of the Jack and the Beanstalk giants of the Salvia world. Occasional trimming controls growth and helps maintain the fullness of its symmetrical, bushy form.

    Give this perennial rich soils; it does well in mineral-rich clays as long as they drain well. In its native habitat of Central Mexico, it grows near the edge of forests and in open woods, which indicates a preference for partial shade. Although it only needs regular watering, it tolerates planting in areas that are steadily moist.

    Use it to back other plantings or to provide autumn spectacle in a perennial border or cut flower garden. And grow it to provide a bounteous meal for butterflies, honeybees and hummingbirds at a season when other flowering plants are fading.

    10.50
  • Salvia mexicana x hispanica 'Byron Flint'

    (Byron's Mexican Sage) One of our favorite Mexican Sages, this large variety is reputed to be a hybrid between Salvia mexicana and S. hispanica -- a species of Chia Sage.

    Byron's Mexican Sage grows up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide. Its large, fall-blooming flowers are deep violet with bi-color calyxes that are bright green with dark purple streaks. Hummingbirds and honeybees love the blossoms.

    Unlike its parent species, this plant is fragrant. It's also the strongest growing and longest blooming type of S. mexicana that we grow.

    We have found this variety to be exceptionally drought resistant, but it does best with regular watering. It also appreciates rich, well-drained soil. Grow this perennial as an accent, screen or part of a tall border. We've voted it our very best Salvia mexicana.

    10.50
  • Salvia myriantha

    (Mexican Many Flowered Sage) Blooming from late summer into winter, this Mexican cloud-forest native has so many flowers that they are difficult to count. The deep violet blossoms develop distinct, white beelines after opening.

    Growing up to 5 feet tall and 4 feet wide, Salvia myriantha is a good size for the back of perennial borders in moist, woodland gardens. Its sticky foliage and strong aroma may also incline gardeners to use it as a background planting. However, those who love its multitudinous, vibrant flowers may want to plant it close up along pathways. Container planting also works well.

    This shrubby, water-loving sage grows well in USDA cold hardiness zones 9 to 11. It does particularly well in settings with morning sun and afternoon shade. Give it well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter.

    Our honeybees and hummingbirds love it, and we think you will, too.

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia x 'Betsy's Choice'

    (Betsy's Choice Sage) Life and botany have their beautiful mysteries. Betsy's Choice Sage is one of them. We aren't certain of the parentage or history of this tall, attractive, fast-growing sage. However, we are certain that we love its tubular, royal purple flowers. Hummingbirds do as well.

    Some say that it is a cross between a Salvia guaranitica and a Salvia fulgens. Some hint at a S. gesnerifolia connection by comparing it to S. x 'Jeans Purple Passion'. Others draw comparisons between Betsy's Choice and S. Amistad which may possibly be related to S. guaranitica.

    On first impression, it does look like S. guaranitica. However, the leaves of Betsy's Choice are much larger and brighter; its nodes, or rooting points, are much farther apart. As to Amistad -- another South American species -- Betsy's Choice is far larger and much faster growing.

    Another question is whether Betsy's Choice is the same plant as Salvia 'Betsy's Purple', which garden designer Bob Hyland of Portland wrote about for the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 2003.

    Information about the connections between Salvia species can be tantalizingly elusive. Our answer to all this botanical guesswork is that we don't have any answers.

    What we do know is that this shoulder-high, long-blooming, water-loving perennial is heat tolerant and grows well in full sun or partial shade. And here's a footnote discovered at the Sweetbay garden website: Betsy's Choice looks terrific with a backdrop of Pink Muhly Grass ( Muhlenbergia 'Pink Flamingos').

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia x 'Margie Griffith'

    (Margie Griffith Sage) Salvia x 'Margie Griffith' is a big, purple-flowered beauty with glossy green, ribbed foliage. It feeds hummingbirds year round down South and on our coastal, Northern California farm where winter temperatures are moderate.

    Donna L. Dittmann, collections manager at Louisiana State University's Museum of Natural Science created this sturdy hybrid, which is said to have Salvia mexicana (Mexican Sage) and Salvia involucrata (Roseleaf Sage) parentage. Perhaps it's the Roseleaf influence that gives it a touch of shade tolerance.

    Dittmann shared her plant with hummingbird expert Nancy L. Newfield, who shared it with us. The sage is named for their late friend Margie Griffith. The three of them became deeply connected through the Louisiana Ornithological Society and wildlife gardening.

    Salvia x 'Margie Griffith' is a perennial at the cooler end of its rage and a shrub in warmer zones. Hummingbirds find it tasty, but deer avoid it. Give it average watering and rich, well-drained soil.

     

    10.50
    New!
  • Salvia x 'Raspberry Truffle'

    (Raspberry Truffle Sage) Hybrid sages with Big Mexican Scarlet Sage parentage (Salvia gesnerifolia) tend to have thick clusters of large, deep purple flowers supported by bracts that are almost black.

    Raspberry Truffle Sage is also related to another tallish Salvia, Mexican Sage (S. mexicana). Whereas Mexican Sage is a perennial with soft herbaceous growth, Big Mexican Scarlet Sage is shrubby.

    Bloomtime can vary depending on location. On our Northern California farm, Raspberry Truffle starts flowering in late fall, and continues through March. Our resident hummingbirds greatly appreciate its nectar during a season when flowers can be scarce. At other seasons, this sage is worth growing just for its foliage. Its leaves are thick, hairy and deeply veined -- deep green on top and velvety purple underneath.

    Raspberry Truffle grows as a shrub in mild climates and as an herbaceous perennial at the cold end of its range. It needs full sun, well-drained soil and moderate winter temperatures.

    Highly recommended and always in short supply!
    10.50
  • Salvia x guaranitica 'Costa Rica Blue'

    (Costa Rica Blue Sage) Although this handsome plant is often listed as an Anise Leaf Sage (Salvia guaranitica), we think it is a hybrid based on differences in its growth pattern and flowering season.

    Costa Rica Blue Sage is a long-blooming, vigorous plant that can reach up to 6 feet tall. It has large violet-blue flowers with purplish bracts and large, tropical-type leaves. Similar to Anise Leaf Sage, it is a hummingbird magnet.

    This is a sun-loving sage, but also grows well in partial shade in warm climates. Give it rich, well-drained soil and regular watering. Plant it in a spot where you want to make a bold statement.

    10.50
  • Salvia x guaranitica 'Jean's Purple Passion'

    (Jean's Purple Sage) If you are looking for a deep purple perennial for accenting an entryway or back of border in flower beds, Jean's Purple Passion may be the right choice.

    This spectacular hybrid crosses Anise Leaf Sage (Salvia guaranitica) and Big Mexican Scarlet Sage (S. gesnerifolia). Jean's Purple Passion most closely resembles Anise Leaf Sage, but has much larger flowers.

    Often starting its flowering cycle in June, this sage blooms until hard frosts send it into winter dormancy. It is so long blooming that we often send visitors home with bouquets of its fragrant flowers. Butterflies and hummingbirds are equally appreciative of its charms.

    Jean's Purple Passion prefers full sun, rich, well-drained soil, ample water and moderate winter temperatures. Cabrillo College in Aptos, California, developed it and named the hybrid for Jean Coria, a gardening enthusiast who propagated many Salvia species at San Francisco's Strybing Arboretum.

    We highly recommend the much improved Salvia guaranitica 'Purple Haze' as an alternative to this older variety.

    10.50
  • Anisacanthus wrightii

    (Texas Firecracker) Hummingbirds and butterflies will thank you with frequent visits if you add this long-blooming plant to your wildlife garden. Its bright orange trumpet-type flowers with long, narrow petals are wells of delicious nectar.

    Texas Firecracker is a subshrub, which means that it combines soft, herbaceous perennial foliage with some woodiness. It has slender, lance-shaped, dark green leaves. Trim it back in late winter for better form and fuller spring growth.

    Although related to the Bears Breeches genus (Acanthus), Texas Firecracker lacks the thorny sepals of those plants. Anisacanthus is Greek for "without thorns." Wrightii means that this native Texas species is named for American botanist Charles Wright (1811-1885) who, beginning in 1837, spent 15 years collecting extensively in Texas.

    This is a mid-height, heat-tolerant species that loves full sun. Texas Firecracker resists drought, but thrives with average watering based on local conditions. It does well in containers as well as mixed borders.

    For pyrotechnical color in the garden, mix it with the clear, pumpkin-orange flowers of Golden Flame Texas Firecracker (Anisacanthus quadrifidus var. wrightii) and the crimson blossoms of Red Texas Firecracker ( Anisacanthus wrightii 'Select Red').

    Don't worry about deer; this plant isn't to their taste.

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia mexicana var. minor

    (Little Mexican Sage) This low-growing sage is a shrub in its warmest zones and a perennial in the cooler ones. It's just right for small spaces or tiny gardens. Short and compact, its flowers are similar to but smaller than those of S. mexicana 'Limelight'.

    Little Mexican Sage has the broadest temperature tolerance of all the Salvia mexicana we grow, ranging from USDA Zones 7 to 11.

    Compared to our other varieties, some of which can rise up to 10 feet tall, Little Mexican Sage is also petite at a maximum of 30 inches tall and 24 inches wide. Even it 's gray-green leaves are smaller than those of the other varieties. They contrast handsomely with the sage's royal blue flowers, which bloom in fall.

    The size of this full-sun plant makes it a fine container choice for colder climates.  We also love Little Mexican Sage in perennial borders and along walkways. It needs well-drained ground, but is otherwise unpicky about its soil. We highly recommend this easy-to-grow plant.

    10.50

    OUT OF STOCK

  • Salvia patens 'Guanajuato'

    (Guanajuato Giant Gentian Sage) At 3 inches long, the flowers of this Gentian Sage are the largest of any we grow. Guanjuato Giant is also unique for its tall, upright growth and heavily textured foliage.

    Spikes of deep, true blue flowers that rise up to 48 inches tall make this perennial sage a standout in the garden from summer into fall. This Gentian Sage is reliably perennial in USDA Zones 8 to 11. Its spectacular flowers also make it a fine choice as a summer bedding plant in areas with colder winters.

    Guanjuato Giant likes regular watering and rich, well-drained soil. It does fine in full sun or partial shade and can handle moist corners of the yard. Use it as a path edging, border, groundcover or container plant.

    German botanist Karl Hartweg discovered the Salvia patens species in 1838. British horticulturist Graham Stuart Thomas later called it "the best plant in cultivation."

    Although, true blue is not a part of the color spectrum that hummingbirds favor, they are attracted to Gentian Sages especially when mixed with red-flowered sages.

    10.50
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New at FBTS: Hummingbirds Thrive on Margie Griffith Sage

New at FBTS: Hummingbirds Thrive on Margie Griffith Sage


Category: New at FBTS
Posted: Jan 21, 2017 08:45 AM
Synopsis: A love of birds can grow into a passion for gardening. The reverse is also true. Sometimes these passions result in the development of excellent plants, such as Salvia x 'Margie Griffith' -- one of our newest introductions at Flowers by the Sea, our family farm and online nursery. Margie Griffith Sage grows up to 96 inches tall and wide in bloom. In some parts of its USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 8 to 11 it feeds hummingbirds nearly year round.
Ask Mr. Sage: What Is Average Watering?

Ask Mr. Sage: What Is Average Watering?


Category: Ask Mr. Sage
Posted: Aug 6, 2015 04:15 PM
Synopsis: Confusion about watering of plants is understandable, because moisture needs vary so much from one species to another. It also varies based on your local growing conditions. Ask Mr. Sage, a regular feature of the Everything Salvias blog at Flowers by the Sea Online Plant Nursery, explains the differences between the labels drought resistant, average water and water loving classifications for estimating water needs. Some FBTS average water plants also grow well in dry or damp settings.
I like Amstiad

Hummingbirds love Salvia (sage) nectar and are attracted to it by the bright colors of tubular sage blossoms. In particular, these little whirlybirds can easily spot flowers in the red spectrum, which is prevalent among sages. Here are some hummingbird gardening tips.


  1. Go tubular. Hummingbirds need tubular flowers that are easy for long, thin beaks to access.
  2. Provide lots of color. Think of yourself as a cafeteria manager who needs to provide many tempting choices in order to attract business. Red, pink, orange and purple sages are particularly powerful hummingbird magnets.
  3. Keep your garden blooming. Plant a variety of Salvias based not only on color but also a broad span of bloom times. Many flower from spring into fall. Others are prolific fountains of nectar for shorter seasons. Numerous winter-blooming species are available for areas that are home to hummingbirds year round.
  4. Grow sages native to the Western Hemisphere. Although hummingbirds will take advantage of many kinds of tubular flowering plants, these tiny birds are native to the Western Hemisphere and prefer flowering plants native to their half of the world.
  5. Select Salvia companion plants. Hummingbirds appreciate a variety of favorite tubular-flowered plants.
  6. Plant hummingbird gardens near cover. Trees and bushes surrounding feeding areas provide protection from predators and chilly, rainy weather.
  7. Don't use pesticides. Insects provide protein for hummingbirds, so don't kill these food sources.
  8. Provide water. Hummingbirds frolic in misters and shallow birdbaths.
  9. Supplement plantings with feeder tubes. Change the sugar water every few days and don't add food coloring. Keep the feeders clean, but don't scrub them with soaps or detergents. Here is more feeder care information.
  10. Read more. Our Everything Salvias Blog offers a number of articles about hummingbirds.
Hey, got any greens?

If you live in suburbs or rural areas where deer plunder gardens, Salvias (sages) can be part of your plan for discouraging these hungry visitors. Here are some tips.


  1. Mask smells that deer like with aromatic sages. Deer and other members of the Cervidae family, such as elk, mostly leave Salvias alone. One theory is that they don't like the fragrance or taste of sage chemicals. Strategically planting sages near vegetable gardens or fruit trees -- elixir to deer -- may prevent consumption.
  2. Grow hedges including Salvias. Prickly hedges, including hairy-leafed Salvias and exceptionally thorny roses, can discourage deer from entering your yard. They don't like the mouth-feel of those textures. Tall hedges also hide strawberry beds and other yummy plantings from view.
  3. Don't overplant one species. Grow a variety of Salvias in case local deer take an unexpected liking to one species of sage.
  4. Fence deer out. Install electric fences or 8-foot wood or metal fences around particularly vulnerable areas. Make sure electric fencing is turned on during the peak feeding seasons of early spring and late fall.
  5. Use motion-detection tools. Install outdoor lighting that is activated by movement.
  6. Let the dogs out. Deer are especially wary of large dogs.
  7. Surround and cover. Wrap tough plastic around the trunks of trees that have tasty bark and cover foliage with bird netting when trees and bushes are fruiting.
  8. Change yard ornaments periodically. Objects such as scarecrows, statuary and cordons of monofilament string with strips of shiny foil attached cause deer to shy away.
  9. Make safe choices. Research repellants you plan to use to make sure they aren't poisonous.
  10. Be flexible and ready to share a bit. There is no such thing as a completely deer-resistant garden.